(foldout) and non-self-supporting (leaning) portable ladders
must be able to support at least four times the maximum
intended load, except extra-heavy-duty metal or plastic
ladders, which must be able to sustain 3.3 times the maximum
intended load. (See Figure 1.)
Non-self-supporting ladders, which must lean against a wall
or other support, are to be positioned at such an angle that
the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of
the ladder is about 1/4 the working length of the ladder.
(See Figure 2.)
- In the case of
job-made wooden ladders, that angle should equal about 1/8
the working length. This minimizes the strain of the load on
ladder joints that may not be as strong as on commercially
rungs, cleats, or steps must be parallel, level, and
uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use.
Rungs must be spaced between 10 and 14 inches apart.
extension trestle ladders, the spacing must be 8-18 inches
for the base, and 6-12 inches on the extension section.
- Rungs must be so
shaped that an employee's foot cannot slide off, and must be
skid-resistant. (See Figure 3.)
- Ladders are
to be kept free of oil, grease, wet paint, and other
- Wood ladders must
not be coated with any opaque covering, except
identification or warning labels on one face only of a side
- Foldout or
stepladders must have a metal spreader or locking device to
hold the front and back sections in an open position when in
use. (See Figure 4.)
- When two or
more ladders are used to reach a work area, they must be
offset with a landing or platform between the ladders.
area around the top and bottom of ladder must be kept clear.
Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to provide
longer sections, unless they are specifically designed for
(See Figure 5.)
- Never use a ladder
for any purpose other than the one for which it was
This is improperly using the top rung of
this step ladder to work from.